|Musicologie van de Keltische en naburige stijlen|
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INHOUD van deze pagina (verberg)
Hier de vermelding van de betrokken manuscripten:
|Book of Leinster||Leabhar Laighneach||TCD MS H.2.18 (Cat. No. 1339)||ca. 1160|
|Book of Ballymote||Leabhar Bhaile an Mhóta||RIA MS 23 P 12 (Cat. No. 536)||ca.1390|
Voor een moderne vertaling, zie de website Corpus of Electronic Texts: Book of Leinster: The Metrical Dindshenchas: Carmun.
De grote festivals of 'fairs', die in het oude Ierland werden gehouden, waren geen, zoals de huidige term zou doen vermoeden, gewone jaarmarkten. Het waren bijeenkomsten van het volk voor allerlei officiële activiteiten. Een uitgebreide beschrijving van zo'n festival, dat bekend staat als de 'Fair of Carman', wordt gegeven in een gedicht dat men aantreft in het Boek van Leinster en het Boek van Ballymote. Deze Aonach Carmain was een driejaarlijks festival, dat in de plaats werd gehouden, waarvan gezegd wordt, dat de voorchristelijke strijdster Carman daar was begraven (nu Wexford). De start van het festival was op Lughnasadh, dat wil zeggen op 1 augustus en eindigde op de 6de van deze maand.
Het gedicht beschrijft een tal van formele activiteiten. De hoogwaardigheidbekleders in de raad van de koning van Leinster, die over alle deelnemers de leiding had, ook over degenen die tot de sub-koninkrijkjes behoorden en een speciale plaats in deze raad hadden. Er is een beschrijving van sport en spel van bepaalde stammen of klassen. Zoals paardenraces met strijdwagens van de Ossorianen (van het koninkrijkje Osraighe in Leinster), of alleen door de Roydamnas (een bepaalde groep edelen, mogelijk gelieerd aan de hoogkoning of Ard-Rí) en prinsen. Sommige raden bestonden uitsluitend uit mannen of vrouwen, anderen weer gemengd. Voor wat betreft het vermaak, was er het reciteren van een diversiteit aan gedichten en verhalen, in de stijl van de rapsoden bij de oude Grieken.
Naast diverse commerciële activiteiten waren er ook optredens van artiesten, waarbij het publiek, de oude kunsten en kennis uit de oude tijden, goed konden waarderen. Muziek was alom prominent aanwezig, gezien het noemen van een diversiteit aan musici en instrumenten: cruits (lieren of harpen), timpans (driesnarige lierachtige instrumenten), trompetten, wijdmondse hoorns, pipes en veel cruitspelers -of harpisten, pipers en fiddlers. (Vrij naar: W.K. Sullivan en Patrick Weston Joyce (O'Curry, Sullivan, 1873)(Joyce, 1906).
Het onderstaande is het resultaat van een transcriptie en vertaling vanuit het Book of Ballymote en het Book of Leinster, ontleend aan W.K. Sullivan, mede op basis van de bevindingen van Ierse historicus prof. Eugene O'Curry (O'Curry, Sullivan, 1873).
|1. Listen, O Lagenians of the monuments,|
Ye truth-upholding hosts,
Until you get from me, from every source,
The pleasant history of far-famed Carman.
|2. Carman, the field of a splendid fair,|
With a widespread unobstructed green,
The hosts who came to celebrate it,
On it they contested their noble races.
|3. The renowned field is the cemetery of kings,|
The dearly loved of noble grades;
There are many meeting mounds,
For their ever loved ancestral hosts.
|4. To mourn for queens and for kings,|
To denounce aggression and tyranny,
Often were the fair hosts in autumn
Upon the smooth brow of noble old Carman.
|5. Was it men, or was it a man of great valour,|
Or was it a woman of violent jealousy,
Gave the name without the merit of noble deeds,-
Bestowed the true name of beautiful Carman?
|6. It was not men, and it was not a fierce man,|
But a single woman fierce, rapacious,
Great her rustling and her tramp,
From whom Carman received its first name.
|7. Carman, the wife of the fierce Mac Dibad,|
Son of Dorcha, of legions and choice hospitality,
The son of Ancges, of rich rewards,
The renowned hero of many battles.
|8. They sought not the profits of industry,|
Through ardent love of noble Banba,
For they were at all times toilers in the east,-
The sons of Mac Dibad and their mother.
|9. At length they westwards came,|
Dian and Dubh and Dothur,
From delightful Athens westward,
And Carman their mother.
|10. They used to destroy upon the Tuatha D&eacte;,-|
The wicked malignant race,-
The produce of every land unto the shore:
It was a great, an oppressive evil.
|11. Carman by all powerful spells,|
Destroyed every growing productive fruit,
After each unlawful art being tried [by]
The sons with violence, with injustice.
|12. Soon as the Tuatha D&eacure; perceived|
What deprived them of their summer bloom,
For every evil deed which they wrought,
They hurled an equal deed upon them.
|13. Critenbel, he was a Sab*),|
And Lug Laibech, son of Cachir;
Becuille in every field entangled them,
And Ai the son of Ollam**)
|*)Sab, plural Sabaid, which means literaly a block or prop - anything strong which supports.|
Sabaid signifies persons powerful by their influence, props of the state such as the chiefs, portionate share of the capital, income, champions, Aires, poets, etc., who sat with the king in the banquet hall, while engaged in the business of the state, in which the Sabs assisted as a council.
**)These names also occur in the tale of the second battle of Magh Tuirtd.
|14. They said to them when they arrived,-|
The four warriors of equal valour,-
Here is a woman instead of your mother,
Three men for your three brothers.
|15. Death to ye we choose not nor desire,|
It is neither [our] pleasure or free choice;
Assign with openness a proper pledge,
And depart out of Eriu each of you three.
|16. Those men then from us departed,-|
They were expelled with great difficulty;
Though a woman of theirs they left there,
Carman, alive in her narrow cell.
|17. Every oath from which there is no release -*)|
Sea, fire, Heaven, and the fair-faced Earth,- **)
That in power or weakness they ne'er would return,
As long as the sea encircled Eriu.
|*)Slan was the entire liability incurred when an Aitire was given for the fulfilment, of the stipulations of a bond. It represented an admission of the liability to the whole of the principal and costs, equivalent to the modern marking of a judgment.|
**) That is the four elements.
|18. Carman, who gave death and battles,|
Once so destructive with her spells,
Received her fate, as she well deserved,
Among the oaks of these firm mounds.
|19. Hither came, to celebrate her [funeral] rites,|
To lament her, to inaugurate her Guba,*)
The Tuatha Dé, upon the noble beautiful plain:
This was the first regular fair of Carman.
|*)Wailings for the dead.||20. The grave of Carman, by whom was it dug?|
Will you learn, or do you know?
According to all our beloved forefathers,
It was Bres, son of Eladan. Listen.
|21. Four score and five fair hundreds,|
Is the number, not false, of years,
From Carman of demoniac spells,
To the manifested birth of Jesus after humanity.*)
|*)That is, after he had assumed human nature.|
|22. Two years, thirty, and four hundred,|
From the birth of Christ - not small the span -
To Crimthan over Carman's plain,
To Patrick the great and glorious.
|23. Five kings and thirty, without neglect of the tryst|
Of Leinstermen, before the faith of Christ,
Their fame extended over Eriu,
From thy sweet-sounding harbour, O Carman.
|24. Five and fifty vigilant kings,|
Of the champions of Christianity,
From Crimthan, inflictor of wounds,
To Diarmad Dornmas Durgen.
|25. The eight sons of Gollamh with their full host,|
Dond, Ir, Eber, and Heremon,
Amergin, Colptha the griefless,
Ereach Febria, and Erennan.
|26. These were the upholders of the fair,|
To be ever highly boasted of,
Coming thither, going thence;
To the advent of the all-ruling faith.
|27. Of the Tuatha Dé to the sons of Miledh,|
Was a race of upright women and brave men;
Of the sons of Miledh of bright deeds
Was the race to Patrick of Macha.
|28. Heaven, Earth, sun, moon, and sea,|
Fruits, fire, and riches,
Mouths, ears, alluring eyes,
Feet, hands, noses, and teeth.
|29. Steeds, swords, beautiful chariots,|
Spears, shields, human faces,
Dew, fruits, blossoms, and foliage,
Day and night, a heavy flooded shore.
|30. These in fulness all were there,|
The tribes of Banba without lasting grief,-
To be under the protection of the fair,
Every third year without prohibition.
|31. The gentiles of the Gaedhil did celebrate,|
In Carman, to be highly boasted of,
A fair without [breach of] law, without crime,
Without a deed of violence, without dishonour.
|32. The followers of Christ's baptism deny not,|
That in Carman, right true,
More regular became the tryst
From Christ to the [introduction] of Christianity.
|33. The kings and the saints of Eriu,|
With Patrick, and with Crimthan,
Each clan they bravely controlled,
The fair they blessed.
|34. Nine times thirty high fairs,|
Were celebrated over the shores of Carman,
Fifty in its high central tryst,
From Heremon to Patrick.
|35. Five four tens is the date*)|
Over which the noble fair extended,
From Breasal Broenach without guile
To the last holding of the fair.
|*)Five, and four tens, i.e. 540 years.|
|36. From Crimthan of the comely form,|
From Cathair ........................
Nine were celebrated without intermission
By the race of Labrad, the princely hero.
|37. Sixteen kings to me have been recorded,|
By every Sai, and profound historian,*)
From Carman of the branchy harbours,
Who brought hosts unto the noble fair.
|*)Suad, or Sai, was the title of the class of literary men (poets, historiographs etc.) The highest rank of each profession was called Ollamh - thus Ollamh Brethemnas was the highes rank of judge. The highest rank of Sai was accoringly styled an Ollamh also. He had the same rank as a Righ Ruireach; and was entitled to the same number in his retinue and to the same Dire.|
|38. Eight from the populous Dodder,-|
Renowned hosts ever to be boasted of,-
They celebrated the regular fair of Carman
With pomp and with bright arms.
|39. Twelve, without an error iti the counting,|
Of festive fairs I acknowledge,
To the fierce champion, of valour,
Of the regal race of noble Maistiu.
|40. Five from Fidgabhla the stern,|
Celebrated over Carman of high renown,
A rich fair, with bridles,*)
With saddles, with bridle-steeds.
|*)The Sreith was the double reined or parade bridle, as distinguished rom the Srian (= sreith + eon) i.e. the one-reined bridle.|
|41 . Six by the royal triumphant heir,|
Of the race of Breasal Breac of mighty blows-
A fair host with resplendent spears,
Over the cell of the battle-wounding Carman.
|42. Patrick and Bridget together,|
Caemgen and Colam Cille,
They are dominant over every host,
And they durst not be 'cavalcaded''.
|43. The fair of the saints, with pomp is celebrated,|
'T is meet at first to pay homage to God,
The fair of the high king of bright heaven,
It is after the [latter] it comes.
|44. The fair of the women of Leinster in the afternoon,|
A noble most delightful host - 't is no false assertion:
Women whose fame is not small abroad,
Their fair is the third fair.
|45. The Laisechs of Fothairt, wide their fame:|
To them is the stewardship of the coteries of the women:
Leinster with all her jewels to them belongs,
The chosen men for its protection.
|46. To mirthful royal princes belongs|
The fifth game at Carman;
The host of Eriu's bounteous men, with their jewels,
To them the sixth fair is assigned.
|47. After this the Clan Cunla follow,|
The fair of Carman duly celebrating,
Beyond each host, a noble race,-
On every field, a royal progeny.
|48. Seven games, as to you we have told,|
That is what Patrick ordained,
On every day of the sportive week,
Enjoining that to sweet devotions they should ever listen. Listen
|49. The Leinstermen continued to hold this fair,|
By their tribes, by their families,
From Labrad Longsech of glittering hosts,
To the powerful red-speared Cathair.
|50. Cathair bequeathed Carman,|
Only to his own great and powerful race;
At their head with splendour bright,
The race of Ros Failge we behold.
|51. The Forud of the noble king of Airget Ros,|
On the right of the king of beautiful Carman;
On his left hand stands, in right of inheritance,
The Forud of the king of Gaible Gé-Cluain;
|The matter of stanzas 51, 52, and 53 is given in four stanzas in the
Book of Ballymote, as follows:
26. The Forud of the noble kink of Airget-Ros|
On the right of the king of beautiful Carman;
On his left, with all athletic sports,
The Forud of the king of Cruachan- tht lofty hero;**)
[*)A Forud was the place in which eacht king sat surrounded by his Sabaid or counsellors, and his Dam or retinue. The seat of the king seems to have been on the top of a mound which was surrounded by an earthen wall or rampart. Forud is cognate with Forus, the residence of a magistrate, and with the Latin Forum.
**)The Cruachan here meant is Cruachan Claenta or Offaly]
|52. And the progeny of the numerous race of Lugad|
Laigsich, son of Conall Cendmor;
And the Fotharts who knew no thirst,
Without derogation to their ancestral inheritance.
|27. And the progeny of the numerous race of Lugad|
Laigsech, son of Conall Cendmoir;
And the Fotharts rich in jewels -
Not degrading to the noble guardians.
|53. On the Kalends of August without fail,|
They repaired thither every third year;
There aloud with boldness they proclaimed
The rights of every law, and the restraints.
|28. On the Kalends of August without fail,|
They repaired thither every third year;
They contested seven well-fought races,
On the seven days of the week.
29. There they proclaimed in friendly words,
The rights and laws of the province; -
Every right of law they proclaimed, -
Every third year they revised them.
|54. To sue, to levy, to controvert debts,-|
The abuse of steeds in their career,
Is not allowed to contending racers,-
Elopements, arrests, distraints.
|55. That no man goes into the women's Airecht,*)|
That no women go into the Airecht of fair clean men;
That no abduction is heard of,
Nor repudiation of husbands or of wives.
|*)Airecht, a legal assembly or court. This law for the protection of females appears to have prevailed among the Ancient Irish at all the national Assemblies and Fairs. See the poem on the Fair of Tailte in the Dindsenchas of Tailte, and also in Keating's History reign of Tuathal Techtmar, A.D. 79.|
|56. Whoever transgresses the law of the assembly,-|
Which Benen with accuracy indelibly wrote,-*)
Cannot be spared upon family composition,
But he must die for his transgression.
|*)This Law of Benen is the Leabhar na g-Ceart (published by the Celtic Society, Dublin, 1847.) The Leabar na g-Ceart ('Book of Rights') contains a great portion of the law which in ancient Erinn settled the relations between the several classes of society, and especially the relations between the local authorities and the Central and Provincial kings.|
|57. These are its many great privileges:-|
Trumpets, Cruits, wide-mouthed horns,
Cuisig, Timpanists without weariness,
Poets and petty rhymesters;
|Ir iat a ada olla:|
stuic, cruiti, cuirn chraestolla,
cuisig, timpaig cen triamna,
filid ocus faen chliara;
|58. Fenian tales of Find,- an untiring entertainment,-|
Destructions, Cattle-preys, Courtships,
Inscribed tablets, and books of trees,
Satires, and sharp edged runes;
|59. Proverbs, maxims, royal precepts,|
And the truthful instruction of Fithal,
Occult poetry, topographical etymologies,
The precepts of Cairpri and of Cormac;
|60. The Feasts, with the great Feast of Teamar,|
Fairs, with the fair of Emania,
Annals there are verified,
Every division into which Eriu was divided;
|61. The history of the household of Teamar - not insignificant,|
The knowledge of every territory in Eriu,
The history of the women of illustrious families,
Of Courts, Prohibitions, Conquests;
|62. The noble Testament of Cathair the great|
To his descendants, to direct the steps of royal rule
Each one sits in his lawful place,
So that all attend to them to listen. Listen.
|63. Pipes, fiddles, chainmen,|
Bone-men, and tube-players,
A crowd of babbling painted masks,
Roarers and loud bellowers.
Vertaling gevonden in Breathnach, 1996:
Pipes, fiddles, men of no valour [men without weapons],
bone players and pipe blowers,
a host of embroidered, ornamented dress,
screamers and bellowers.
|Pipai, fidli, fer cen gail|
cnamh fhir, ocus cuislennaig,
sluag etig engach egair,
béccaig ocus buridaig.
|64. They all exert their utmost powers|
For the magnanimous king of the Barrow;
Until the noble king in proper measure bestows
Upon each art its rightful meed.
|Turcbait a fedma uile|
do ríg Berba bruthmaire;
co n-erne in rí rán ramess
ar cach n-dan a miad diles.
|65. Elopements, slaughters, musical choruses,|
The accurate synchronisms of noble races,
The succession of the sovereign kings of Bregia,
Their battles, and their stern valour.
|Aitti, airggni, aidbsi ceoil,|
coimgne cinti coemcheneoil;
A réim rígh rath dar Bregmag,
achath, sachruadh engnam.
|66. Such is the arrangement of the fair,|
By the lively ever happy host;-
May they receive from the Lord
A land with choicest fruits.
|67. They, Leinster's saints, celebrate next day,-|
The saints of the alliance - 't is no evil deed -
Over Carman's bounteous lake, with solemnity,
Masses, adorations, and psalm-singing.
|68. They fast in the autumn, good the deed,|
At Carman, all of them together,-
The Leinstermen without lack of humour,-
Against injustice, against oppression.
|69. The clergy and the laity of Leinster all,|
And the stainless women of the worthy men.
God, who knows how well they merit,
To their noble prayers will listen. Listen.
|70. The hospitality of the Hy Drona,|
And the steed contest of the men of Ossory,
And the clash of spear-handles,
From the entire host, that was the end.
|71. Though we had called it Mesc's grave|
It were not mockery, it were not enmity;
[For Mesc] and old crooked Garman, her husband,
Here in far ancient times were buried.
|72. Even if from those the name had been derived|
By hosts of etymological writers,
It were just, no doubt, and it were lawful,
O Leinstermen of the monuments, listen.
|73. Twenty-one raths of enduring fame,|
In which hosts are under earth confined:
A conspicuous cemetery of high renown,
By the side of delightful noble Carman.
|74. Seven mounds without touching each other,|
Where the dead have often been lamented;
Seven plains, sacred without a house,
For the funeral games of Carman.
|75. Three markets in that auspicious country:-|
A market of food, a market of live stock,
And the great market of the foreign Greeks,
Where gold and noble clothes were wont to be.
|76. The slope of the steeds, the slope of the cooking;|
The slope of the embroidering women;
To no man of the friendly hosts
Will they give adulation, will they give reproach.
|77. There comes of not celebrating it,-*)|
Baldness, failure, and early grayness,
Kings without wisdom, without elegance,
Without hospitality, without truthfulness**)
|*)The following stanza from the Book of Ballymote, indicating the advantages to be gained by holding the fair, seems to show that there is a gap of perhaps two stanzas here, and that this stanza is one of them: it is the thirtieth stanza in the Book of Ballymote (where it comes after the one numbered 29
in the foot note), and is there obviously out of place. The only place where it could be introduced without disturbing the narrative of the poem would be after this stanza: it has however been thought better to give it as a foot note, than to introduce it into this part of the poem which is taken from the Book of Leinster.|
30. Corn, milk, peace, ease, prosperity,
Waters full in great abundance,
True kingly heroes, with loyalty to chiefs,
With triumph of heroic hosts of Eriu.
**)The following is the version of this stanza in the Book of Ballymote:
32. There comes of its not being holden
Baldness, decay, early grayness,
With many other evil fates,
To the noble Leinstermen. Listen.
|78. Hitherto warlike and brave have been|
The numerous hosts of Labrad's house;
All assailing hosts, are compelled to be shy;
They are challenged, and they challenge not.
|79. A welcome with the saintly Host of Heaven,|
May I receive, with the beautiful, all-perfect God;
The King of graceful hosts may I reach,
A king who to every prayer will listen! Listen.